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 The Life of Axel von Fersen 
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Post The Life of Axel von Fersen
I am pretty new to this forum, and it is not easy to read all threads and posts but I have tried to look around.

One thing I noticed is that most of the people here don't really like Axel von Fersen the Younger. But I also noticed that you don't know that much about him. You do know many things about the rumours surrounding him having an affair with Marie Antoinette - and you don't really think that occured... (Neither do I, I must say.) But since I am Swedish and have studied Fersen for some while I thought that you might be interested to get som facts about him (?).

Many of you have opinions about Fersen but you seemed to lack information about his life. I truly hope nobody is offended for me saying this, but I feel this is the case. I can understand how you who study Marie Antoinette not take much notice of Fersen, but it is hard to study Fersen without taking notice of Marie Antoinette (that is why I like your site).

This is just supposed to be a brief overview of Fersen's life, it's hard to get into all details, but I hope people can discuss things about him after reading this post, and come with more facts if you want to, or ask someting if there is something special you want to know... I will not focus on the things you already know, like the things people say are "evidence" of him having a romantical relationship with the Queen. That's not interesting because it has already been discussed in several threads.

(I hope you will excuse my English - as always - it is not my mother tongue.)

Hans Axel von Fersen the Younger was born in Sweden the 4th of September 1755 (the same year as Antoinette) as the oldest son in one of the wealthiest and most powerful families in Sweden in that time, maybe even the wealthiest, but that can always be discussed.

When Fersen was 14 he went on a "grand tour" throughout Europe to study and to make him a "Grandseigneur". Among things he is to learn are languages and warfare, but the tour is also ment to teach him about court life and such things. It was usual in Sweden in this time - and in Europe, I think - to do these kind of grand tours to complete your education before you can come home a man.

He kept a diary from the first day of his grand tour and he stopped writing some months before he died. The diaries before - and some during - the Revolution were destroyed, but the ones from July 1791 and forward remains. His diaries are actually only notes, observations, all in French of course, except some few notes which he writes in Swedish (such as "Blifwit quar"), probably because he didn't want anybody to understand it if the diaries were taken from him. He writes in the same style throughout his life, more often noting what kind of cloathes people wore than what thay talked about, not always of course, but that was his style. For instance he once met and had a long talk with Voltaire but when he writes about it afterwords he doesn't mention the conversation at all. His notes from the Revolution are too very interesting because at that time he wrote very accurate and you can see him going from hope to fear.

He is described by others as handsome (Le Beau Fersen...), tall, proud, sometimes conceited, cold and arrogant. Never rude or ill-mannered, always tactful and reserved. He was very conscious about his apperance, what cloathes he wore and so on, and he was also very conscious about how other people were dressed, how their conversation skills were and things like that. This had to do with his upbringing, he valued urbane manners and he had been tought aristocratic traditions.

The Fersen family had for many generations before Hans Axel been described as beautiful, he and his siblings were no exeptions. It is hard to recognize beauty in paintings from that time I think, they wore wigs, were portrayed maybe a litte flattering (?) and well, there are no photographs. It's the same with paintings of any other person from this era, I think. Anyway he was described as handsome and he also had a lot of mistresses. He has not only been connected with Antoinette but many other princesses and queens from all of Europe, whether there is any true in this is hard to say. We do know he had several mistresses tough, one of them being Mrs Sullivan. He never married.

As you all know Fersen served in the American Revolutionary War. There he was Rochambeau's personal interpreter, because Fersen was one of the few people who talked and understood English and French. Because of that he met George Washington several times during negotiations. Fersen was also present when Sweden (with Gustav III) fought against Russia for Finland 1788.

Most of you all know about the Revolution, so I am not going to write that much about this period. Fersen loved France and he believed that Versaille was the most beautiful place on earth. Though he traveled much in his life his favourite city would always be Paris. Even if he was Swedish he didn't spend that much time in Sweden, only in his first and last years. The people he loved the most were from Sweden though (well, we can never know who he loved more that any other friend, and he had of course many great friend abroad too). Including these friends in Sweden were his dear sister Sophie Piper, which he loved above anything, his "best friend" - and also his sister's lover - Evert Taube and of course Gustav III. He wrote regualarly to these people and when he came to Sweden it was always his sister he visited.

After the Revolution and Gustav III's death Fersen later came back to Sweden and spent his last years there. I don't believe this was his wish, because he tried to work abroad, but his reputation as Antoinette's lover and as the one who helped the royal family try to escape made it very hard. He was not always liked abroad and espesially not in France. As the Swedish ambassador at the congress in Rastatt 1797 he met Napoleon and Napoleon was very rude to Fersen and after that Fersen was not suitable as ambassador for Sweden. Eventually though he would be foreign minister...

Sweden had it's troubles in this time. It is hard to explain this for those who do not know anything about the history of Sweden, especially in just a few words, but I will try and HOPEFULLY it will be to some help. King Gustav III was killed at a masquerade and his son Gustav IV Adolf (I use their Swedish names) became king. Gustav IV Adolf first ruled under guardianship, but the government with opponents of Gustav III was the actual leaders. When Gustav IV Adolf later became king some of "the people" (read: the government) did not like how he ruled. After some fatal mistakes in the war against Napoleon he was set aside and sent away from Sweden and it was decided his children would not inherit the throne. Fersen was on Gustav IV Adolf's side, through his friendship with both the king himself and his father Gustav III. Fersen also had strong beliefs in royal blood and he was truly no democrat (espesially since he saw what happened in France).

At the time before Gustav IV Adolf turned 18 Fersen was not at all highly esteemed, but that changed when Gustav IV Adolf became the real king.
Then he became well respected in Sweden and he became "Marshal of the Realm" ("riksmarsalk" in Swedish), foreign minister, "one of the Lords of the Realm of Sweden" ("en av Rikets Herrar" in Swedish) among other titles.

When Gustav IV Adolf was sent away there were some arguments to who would become king, Karl XIII inherited the throne as Gustav III's brother, but he had no children and he was quite old. Eventually it was decided that he would adopt the Danish prince Karl August (his Swedish name). During Karl August's journey to Sweden he died on his horse, probably from a stroke. But as soon as he died the rumours started that he had been killed and probably by one of the followers of Gustav III. Fersen was the one they pointed their fingers at (and his sister Sophie actually) and even the king Karl XIII believed in the rumours. An autopsy had been made which established that the prince had not been killed, but the doctor that made the autopsy was actually Fersens private doctor (because he was the first on the scene) so therefor people still believed Fersen killed Karl August.

On the day of Karl August's funeral the rumours were widespread and because of that Fersen's friends tried to convince him not to participate in the funeral. But Fersen ignored the warnings, he had to be there as the Marshal. I will not go into details but during the funeral march Fersen was brutually murdered by the mob. It has now been made clear that the king Karl XIII had something to do with the murder, because during the prolonged execution of Fersen the royal guards just stood by and watched because they had orders not to interfere. The mob has also been given free alcohol and nothing had been done to stop the rumours (quite the opposite actually).

After some months Fersen (and his sister) was cleared of suspicions of having anything to do with Karl August's death. His sister Sophie raised a monument on the grounds of one of the family's castels (Löfstad) with the inscription: "Åt en oförgätlig broder, mannamodet uti hans sista stunder den 20 juni 1810, vittna om hans dygder och sinnes lugn" in English: "To an unforgettable brother, the courage in his last moments on the 20th of June 1810, bears testimony to his virtues and clean conscience".


Sun Oct 28, 2007 5:16 pm
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I have to admit I don't like this man ! :lol: Not because he was or was not queen Marie Antoinette's lover, but because he widely usurped his reputation of pure and white knight.

He was not. First of all, Hans Axel von Fersen was interested in his career, and in war. That's why he wanted so hard to go and fight in America. That's why he asked for the Royal Suedois using queen Marie Antoinette and king Gustav to obtain it.

Then he was interested in his fame and in appearences. How to dress, how to meet VIP, the way these people noticed and treated him. That's why he needed money. He may come from an extremely rich family, Axel von Fersen always was searching for money. Money his father did not want to give him, money he pretended king Louis XVI and queen Marie Antoinette had promissed him before they died...

Then, of course, he was interested in women. These women had to be beautiful enough to appear with Lange Axel. He could not risk to be ridiculed if coming to the opera with a too small lady, or with a lady who did not have pretty feet.

And, most of all, a suitable lady had to love him, and to take care of him. That's why he hesitated so much about Eleonore Sullivan. Did she love him enough ?

This impression I gradually got when reading and reading again about this man I did not take from biographies. I owe these to his own writings, his so famous dagbok. Charles Kunstler and Françoise Kermina quote large parts of it. And it is anything except a noble soul who wrote these words.

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Sun Oct 28, 2007 7:19 pm
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Pimprenelle wrote:
That's why he needed money. He may come from an extremely rich family, Axel von Fersen always was searching for money. Money his father did not want to give him, money he pretended king Louis XVI and queen Marie Antoinette had promissed him before they died...


Fersen used a lot of his own money when planning the king and queen's escape, but he also lent money from several people. It was very expensive and costed Fersen a whole deal of money. Antoinette of course was a very honourable person and right before the escape she gave him a receipt for all his expenses which was signatured by her and the king. The receipt says that Fersen shall recieve all the money he put out. The receipt is today in a museum in Stockholm. Though Fersen never got his (or the other people's) money back.

Pimprenelle wrote:
That's why he hesitated so much about Eleonore Sullivan. Did she love him enough ?


Actually I don't see why he sholdn't marry someone who really loved him? Fersen tried to convince Sullivan so come with him to Sweden (where they could live together without someone else interfering), but she wouldn't do that. I think he didn't marry her because he realized she would never really love only him (and maybe he never could only love her?) and I don't really think she ever wanted to marry him either.

Pimprenelle wrote:
This impression I gradually got when reading and reading again about this man I did not take from biographies. I owe these to his own writings, his so famous dagbok. Charles Kunstler and Françoise Kermina quote large parts of it. And it is anything except a noble soul who wrote these words.


I have - of course - read all his dagdöcker, and many of his letters. I do think very greatly of him and I believe for certain that he was a noble soul. His sometimes writes concise in his diaries, but they are only ment to be notes, and it was not written for anyone else to read but himself. He is more passionated in letters, especially to his sister, but I love reading his diary more anyway.


Sun Oct 28, 2007 7:58 pm
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I have nothing against Fersen. He was a man of his time. I think the main reasons that he did not marry Eleonore is that she was not of an aristocratic family-- his family would have had a fit-- and she was already married.

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Sun Oct 28, 2007 8:14 pm
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Therese wrote:
I think the main reasons that he did not marry Eleonore is that she was not of an aristocratic family-- his family would have had a fit-- and she was already married.


Though he was the head of his family at the time when he was thinking of marrying Sullivan (according to his diary) with both his parents dead and him being the oldest of the sons I think you can be right. He was actually thinking of marrying though, when he was older too and lived in Sweden, but it didn't happen then either. He writes: "Jag har alltid måst skiljas från föremålen för min tillgivenhet, och det är skrivet i stjärnorna att jag aldrig skall bli lycklig. (Eng: I have always had to part from the target of my devotion, it is written in the stars that I shall never be happy.") The woman (Emelie De Geer) actually married Fersens younger brother after Fersen had died.


Sun Oct 28, 2007 8:26 pm
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Oh, yes, and I think that being the head of his family made him even more burdened with marrying the "right" lady, or not marrying at all.

Very interesting contributions, hans axel! :D

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Sun Oct 28, 2007 8:32 pm
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Something to add about Fersen is also that he always spoke very nicely of Antoinette in his diary. Often thinking of her burdens and her sufferings.
The 1st of september 1792 he writes about Antoinette and Louis XVI being seperated from each other: "Underrättelser från Paris. Dessa nyheter gjorde mig bedrövad. Skilsmässan från konungen måste ha varit mycket bitter för drottningen." Eng: "Information from Paris. These news made me distressed. The separation from the king must have been depressing for the queen."


Sun Oct 28, 2007 9:00 pm
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Count Fersen truly was a friend of both the king and the queen.

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Sun Oct 28, 2007 9:04 pm
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Fersen used a lot of his own money when planning the king and queen's escape, but he also lent money from several people. It was very expensive and costed Fersen a whole deal of money. Antoinette of course was a very honourable person and right before the escape she gave him a receipt for all his expenses which was signatured by her and the king. The receipt says that Fersen shall recieve all the money he put out. The receipt is today in a museum in Stockholm. Though Fersen never got his (or the other people's) money back.

He tried so hard to have it back, so hard. He asked Mercy, he went to Vienna to meet Madame Royale. But the emperor told him evasive answers.

Actually, they were not confident, they did not want to give this money to a man who used so many blanc-seing from king Louis, you know, those papers with only a signature on it, and where you can write anything you want.

I am glad you saw this paper in Stockolm, Hans Axel, so that you could see if it actually is Louis XVI's scripture on it, for French eminent specialists, Paul and Pierrette Girault de Coursac, have doubts about it. This paper may be apocryphal, and actually written by Fersen. Maybe it's the reason why Vienna never paid this.

Paul and Pierrette Girault de Coursac' Louis XVI et Marie Antoinette, vie conjugale, vie politique is a very, very interesting book. The Fersen affair is examined in it with an extreme precision. But I guess you read it already ! :D

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Sun Oct 28, 2007 10:00 pm
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I have - of course - read all his dagdöcker, and many of his letters. I do think very greatly of him and I believe for certain that he was a noble soul

You must have missed this passage, then. Or maybe you think it is the expression of a great soul ? :shock:

It is a quotation from Fersen's diary, written a few days before Marie Antoinette's execution, while the poor woman was dying from sorrow and misfortune in a stinking cell of the conciergerie :

Eléonore me parla de sa position; elle en est ennuyée à l'excès; elle me dit être résolue à finir cette vie qui lui était insupportable; elle m'assura qu'elle viendrait avec moi, mais qu'elle ne pouvait aller en Suède dont le climat était trop froid, et qu'elle ne pouvait rien faire avant que je fusse décidé. Cela m'embarrassait fort; je l'aimais; j'aurais été bien aise de vivre avec elle, j'avais en outre besoin de quelqu'un qui me soigne. Mais si Elle vit, je ne veux et je ne peux l'abandonner; si je la perds, comment renoncer à mon pays, à l'existence que j'y ai, au rôle que j'y peux jouer. Quoique je sois fort dégoûté aux affaires et que notre théâtre suédois soit très subalterne, j'ai de la peine à ne rien faire. J'avais bien le moyen, si Elle périt, de me faire envoyer en Italie à la place d'Annielt qui n'y veut pas rester. Je puis ensuite aller ailleurs et servir de cette manière selon mes désirs. C'est le seul parti qui me reste à prendre, car ayant perdu Elle, je ne peux pas rester sans Eléonore, mais il faut avant tout que les affaires de France soient terminées, et cette incertitude sur mon avenir me tourmente fort

I know you don't need translation, Hans Axel, since you read French for sure. However, I'll do it for our other friends, so that they would not miss a single word of this so noble text :

Eleonore told me about her position; she is terribly worried about it; she told me she was decided to end up this life that was unbearable to her; she ensured me she would come with me, but that she could not get to Sweden whose weather is too cold, and that she could not do anything before I decided. I was very embarrassed; I loved her; I would have been very happy to live with her, and I needed some one to take care of me. But if She lives, I do not want, I cannot abandon her, if I loose her, how could I drop my country and the life I have there, and the role I can play there. Although I am very disgusted by affairs and our Swedish theatre is quite inferior, it is difficult to me not to do anything. I had the mean, if she perishes, to be sent to Italy taking the place of Annielt who does not want to stay there. I can then get elswhere and serve so following my wishes. It is the only thing to do for, having lost Her, I cannot remain without Eleonore, but first of all, it is necessary that these affairs of France are finished, and this uncertainty about my future bothers me very much.

Is that what you call pure expression of nobility and elevation of the soul ? Marie Antoinette was suffering to death, and her most loyal (as they say) friend was worried to death... because of his future and these unbearable uncertainties. Where to go to maintain a suitable position ? What woman to marry to be sure some one would take care of him ? What court to choose that would be regal enough for him ? Poor man... what a crucifiction ! :evil:

Marie Antoinette is about to die, and Fersen is making sordid little calculations about her chances to survive, and how her possible survival could influence his future existence ! :evil:

Sorry, Hans Axel, it is not because I do not know Fersen enough that I don't appreciate this man. It is because I know him far too much !

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Sun Oct 28, 2007 10:30 pm
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Pimprenelle wrote:
He tried so hard to have it back, so hard.
And why wouldn't he, he was in great need of money and the people he lent money from when he planned the escape wanted their money back too. He waited though, 'til after the revolution before he claimed the money, because he didn't want anything to interfere with helping the royal family. His intentions were never money, he helped Louis XVI and Antoinette because he was a real friend and royalist.

Pimprenelle wrote:
...This paper may be apocryphal, and actually written by Fersen. Maybe it's the reason why Vienna never paid this...
May, maybe, maybe... I do not see why Vienna would give him any money though and I am not surprised that he didn't get his money back. It was a large sum and Vienna had certainly not made that great an effort to help Antoinette and Louis during the revolution so why would they feel the need of doing something when it was all over. The escape didn't turn out that well either (not that it was Fersen's fault), but it would probably have been different if it did.


Sun Oct 28, 2007 10:32 pm
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If people would read Fersen's diary, it would destroy the myth of this great love.

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Sun Oct 28, 2007 10:34 pm
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The escape didn't turn out that well either (not that it was Fersen's fault), but it would probably have been different if it did.

Oh, yes ! This June 20th was Fersen's great day ! And the whole periode was, wasn'it ? He wrote it, these years were the most beautiful of his life...

... unfortunately, these were the most terrible of Marie Antoinette's life. During those years, she was put into jails, she lost her husband, she lost everything she had, she was separated from her little boy, her Chou d'amour ! :evil:

But these years were the most exciting of Fersen's life. How he felt he was alive ! How he felt this power burning into his hands. Almost ambassador to king Louis and queen Marie Antoinette, almost ruling France from Brussels through his correspondence with the queen...

Indeed, Hans Axel, what if the flight to Montmedy had succeeded... ? So much power and glory and... and... for count Fersen !

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If people would read Fersen's diary, it would destroy the myth of this great love.

I am afraid it would, dear Therese...

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Sun Oct 28, 2007 10:46 pm
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Pimprenelle wrote:
Eléonore me parla de sa position; elle en est ennuyée à l'excès; elle me dit être résolue à finir cette vie qui lui était insupportable; elle m'assura qu'elle viendrait avec moi, mais qu'elle ne pouvait aller en Suède dont le climat était trop froid, et qu'elle ne pouvait rien faire avant que je fusse décidé. Cela m'embarrassait fort; je l'aimais; j'aurais été bien aise de vivre avec elle, j'avais en outre besoin de quelqu'un qui me soigne. Mais si Elle vit, je ne veux et je ne peux l'abandonner; si je la perds, comment renoncer à mon pays, à l'existence que j'y ai, au rôle que j'y peux jouer. Quoique je sois fort dégoûté aux affaires et que notre théâtre suédois soit très subalterne, j'ai de la peine à ne rien faire. J'avais bien le moyen, si Elle périt, de me faire envoyer en Italie à la place d'Annielt qui n'y veut pas rester. Je puis ensuite aller ailleurs et servir de cette manière selon mes désirs. C'est le seul parti qui me reste à prendre, car ayant perdu Elle, je ne peux pas rester sans Eléonore, mais il faut avant tout que les affaires de France soient terminées, et cette incertitude sur mon avenir me tourmente fort.


What Fersen says is that he does not (can not) want to live with Mrs Sullivan if the queen is alive and if the queen is not alive then he is needed in Sweden and then he must live in Sweden (as he also did). Therefore he was in despair when Mrs Sullivan said she didn't want to live in Sweden because for him he could only be with her in Sweden, so it's quite sad actually... That is what Fersen writes. He wrote this on the 13th of October 1793, three days before the queen died.

Though Fersen did not know that the queen was going to die the 16th. The news they got from Paris was often not true and it often came later than what they would have wanted. He founds out several days after she died that she was dead. He hears of her verdict first after she has died even and he thinks she is still alive then, he writes very passionetly in his diary at this time (around the 20th), thinking about her last moment, his own grief and how he shall revenge those who did Antoinette wrong.

On the 10th of October he wrote: "I am worried about the queens verdict, if it is announced this proud and unhappy queen will be lost, never is the assembly going to do themselves such a harm as to acquit her. These villains! And God allowes them to live. May the same almighty God save the head, which is so dear to me!"

And... Just to inform you (I thought it looked strange) Annielt is actually Armfelt.

Pimprenelle wrote:
This June 20th was Fersen's great day ! And the whole periode was, wasn'it ? He wrote it, these years were the most beautiful of his life...


He would often say his time in Paris was the greatest of his life, mostly before the revolution. And even during the revolution he (and many with him) didn't see the real fears and always thought that the king and queen would survive and he was told many times that the queen was well treated when she was imprisoned. Therefore it might sound harsh if he is happy during this time, but actually he is just hopeful. His greatest years though, if we only speak of politics, were during Gustav IV Adolf's reign when Fersen lived in Sweden.


Sun Oct 28, 2007 11:20 pm
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Of course, it's easier to be hopeful, we all know that... It was not him who was suffering in prison. So, rather be hopeful that sympathetic, most of all when you are spending time with a sensual lady who wants to marry you. :lol:

Remember Marie Antoinette was dying...

Fersen did not know that ? Well, easier not to know, maybe. The point is that this passage I quoted from Fersen's diary only shows a selfish and snobbish guy, nothing more.

Of course, you can find excuses for him, and you certainly will. But, eventually, Hans Axel von Fersen was, as Therese so cleverly wrote, a man of his time. He was a libertine, a courtier among others. So, indeed, a more careful reading of Fersen's writings would destroy this love legend.

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Sun Oct 28, 2007 11:34 pm
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