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 Philippe-Egalité 
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Post Re: Philippe-Egalité
Thank you Drake Rlugia, it is always interesting to see some sort of new insight in the forums. :king:


Wed Jan 07, 2009 8:02 pm
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Post Re: Philippe-Egalité
Lets have a look at the rogue...

The Duc d'Orleans Philippe Egalite
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Last edited by silverstar on Fri Nov 06, 2009 8:04 pm, edited 1 time in total.



Thu Oct 01, 2009 11:39 pm
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Post Re: Philippe-Egalité
Louis Philippe II Joseph, Duke of Orléans ( 1747 – 1793), called Philippe Égalité, was a member of a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon, the dynasty then ruling France.



Philippe Égalité was son of Louis Philip I, Duke of Orléans and of Louise Henriette de Bourbon-Conti, and was born at Château de Saint Cloud, in Saint-Cloud.

Having borne the title of Duke of Montpensier until his grandfather's death in 1752, he became Duke of Chartres and in 1769 married Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon-Penthièvre (1753–1821), daughter and heiress of his cousin, the Duke of Penthiêvre, a grand admiral of France and the richest man in the country at the time.

Since it was certain that his wife would become the richest woman in France upon the death of her father, Philippe was determined to play a political role at court equal to that of his great-grandfather Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, who had been the Regent of France during the minority of King Louis XV. Besides being power-hungry, the two men were to resemble each other in character and debauchery.

As Duke of Chartres he opposed the plans of René de Maupeou in 1771, when Maupeou successfully upheld royal interests in a confrontation with the Parlement de Paris, and was promptly exiled to his country estate of Villers-Côtterets .
When Louis XVI came to the throne in 1774, Louis Philippe was still a suspect in the eyes of the court; Marie Antoinette hated him for what she viewed as treachery, hypocrisy and selfishness, and he, in turn, scorned her.

In 1778, he served in the squadron of the Count of Orvilliers and was present in the naval battle of Ushant in July 1778. He then was removed from the navy due in part to the queen's hatred of him, but also due to his own incompetence and cowardice.
As compensation, he was given the honorary post of colonel-general of hussars.

He married Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon-Penthièvre at the Palace of Versailles, on June 6, 1769.
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Louise Marie Adélaïde brought to the already wealthy House of Orléans a considerable dowry of six million livres, an annual income of 240,000 livres (later inceased to 400,000 livres), as well as lands, titles, residences and furniture.

During the first few months of their marriage the couple appeared devoted to each other, but the marriage did not remain happy.

The duke soon took as his mistress, Stéphanie, Countess of Genlis, one of his wife's ladies-in-waiting .
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The Countess of Genlis was self educated from
a poor background. She became governess to some of the wealthiest families in France.
She also became a prolific writer of over 80 works.
Despite the duchess' opposition, the Countess de Genlis was made the governess of the couple's children.
Due to the countess' machinations, the duchess soon was alienated from her own children, prompting her to suffer from depression
.
Duchess Louise Marie was forced into contact with her children's governess on a daily basis, since the countess was housed by her lover in the couple's Paris home, the Palais Royal.
The duchess also inadvertently met another of her husband's mistresses, Grace Elliott, because her husband insisted on housing her too at the Palais Royal.

The Duc d’Orléans was given the Palais-Royal by his father in 1780. Needing money, he decided to convert the perimeter of the garden into a series of arcades and pavilions which he could then let.
Much opposition was voiced by the Parisians and he was booed when he appeared in public, but the plans went ahead.
Image
The Palais Royal in 1863

A total of 180 semicircular arcades were created between 1781 and 1784 with premises to be sold or leased to merchants and performers. The new market galleries were ready for their tenants by 1 April 1784 and it was then that Curtius decided to lease two of the boutiques in the galerie de Montpensier, on the western side of the central gardens.

Each arcade consisted of a market gallery at ground level, a mezzanine floor and four storeys above that. The second storey was reserved for private owners, the third for artists and women and the fourth for servants.

In the upper storeys were gaming houses, chess clubs, colonial societies, a planter’s club, an art society and numerous lodging houses. There were also museums and private clubs in rooms above the arcades, leading one commentator to call the Palais-Royal ............‘the brain of the capital’.

The Musée du Comte d’Artois moved into the Palais-Royal in November 1784.
Founded in 1781 by Pilâtre de Rosier, the pioneer aeronaut and colleague of Professor Jacques Charles, the club was a meeting place for scientists, artists and amateurs from many scientific persuasions.

It was very popular and within a month of its opening had over 700 subscribers. In the evening there were lectures, exhibitions of inventions, readings and performances.
It would seem almost certain that Dr Curtius, with his wide interests, was one of its members.
As the Palais-Royal was the private property of the Duc d’Orléans, it fell outside police jurisdiction.

The Camp des Tartares was lit by forty hanging lamps and was heated in the winter, which made it a popular place for assignations. Inside were freak shows featuring such attractions as Mademoiselle Lapierre, a Prussian lady who stood 7 feet tall, and a nude reproduction in wax of La belle Zulima, whose waxy bare breasts were partly covered by her long hair.

For the prurient, and the payment of a few extra sous, her charms could be further explored by lifting the skimpy cloth that covered her lower body.

The notoriety of the Camp des Tartares attracted large crowds and the Palais-Royal soon became known as a place of excess.

When the englishman Arthur Young visited in 1789 he was surprised that it no longer seemed like a palace but was more like a pleasure garden, such as London’s Vauxhall Gardens.
He noted that much of the garden had been replaced by gambling dens, brothels, cafés, workshops, shops and entertainments of all kinds.

It had also become one of the main sources for the printing and distribution of subversive tracts.
There were numerous cafés around the arcades and central garden, where every afternoon people gathered to discuss matters of philosophy and literature. Later, when the conversation became more radical, the cafés nurtured political groups obsessed by intrigue and subversion, and also served as meeting places for the preaching of impromptu revolutionary speeches.

Arthur Young was amazed at the ‘eagerness with which they are heard, and the thunder of applause they received for every sentiment of more than common hardiness or violence against the present government, cannot be easily imagined.
"I am all in amazement at the ministry permitting such nests and hotbeds of sedition and revolt.'

The lessees of the permanent arcades looked down on the raucous showmen who roamed the wooden Camp des Tartares, but the noise and bustle of the coffee houses and the spectacles brought business to everyone, and the Palais-Royal prospered as one of the social and political "centres of Paris"

After his disgrace, Louis Philippe retreated to a life of luxury. He often visited England, and became an intimate of the Prince of Wales, (afterwards King George IV).


In France, he made " anglomania" fashionable, with an admiration for anything British popular, from liberalism to jockeys.
He was also the Grand Master of the Masonic Grand Orient de France from 1771-1793, though he did not attend a meeting of the Grand Orient until 1777, and later distanced himself from Freemasonry .
He also made himself very popular in Paris by his large gifts to the poor during times of famine.
Before the Assembly of Notables in 1787, he had succeeded his father as Duke of Orléans, and showed his liberal ideas in a bold manner, leading to suspicions that he was plotting to become constitutional king of France.
Image
The Duc d'Orleans
In November, he again showed his liberalism during the lit de justice, which Étienne de Brienne had made the king hold. For this transgression, he was again exiled to Villers-Côtterets.
The approaching convocation of the Estates-General made his friends very active on his behalf; he circulated in every bailliage the pamphlets which the Abbot Sieyès had drawn up at his request.

He was elected in three districts, by the noblesse of Paris, Villers-Côtterets and Crépy-en-Valois. In the Second Estate he headed the liberal minority under the guidance of Adrien Duport, and led the minority of forty-seven noblemen who seceded from their own estate (June 1789) and joined the Third Estate.

One of the greatest impacts Égalité left on the revolution was that of the way he spread his political ideologies. As a man of great wealth, he used his money to spread his liberal ideas across the nation. As mentioned above, Egalite spread pamphlets supporting himself, as well as his liberal views.

His administration invented a form of political advertisement that people today may take for granted. He also surrounded himself with people to assist in the writing and spreading of the pamphlets, as well as hiring representatives to sit in for him at assemblies across France.

He hired people, such as the Marquis Ducrest, whose family took over control of Égalité's political advisory service. Once Égalité gave control to the people around him, his movement lost some of his original intentions.
Initially started to spread the word of anti-Bourbon liberalism, the movement began to see people looking to gain personal profit and political power, which was something of little interest to the rich, quiet man.

The movement, though somewhat altered by differing motives, still retained some of Égalité's original beliefs. This became apparent when the Instructions and Deliberations were released by his administration. Though not written by Égalité himself, the writings held values that were very close to his heart; the closest being that of the freedom to travel when and where he pleased.

The part he played during the summer of 1789 is one of the most debated points in the history of the French Revolution. The royal court accused him of being at the bottom of every popular movement, and saw the "gold of Orléans" as the cause of the Reveillon riot and the storming of the Bastille (mirroring the subsequent belief held by the Jacobins that everything opposing them relied on the "gold of Pitt the Younger").

His hatred of Marie Antoinette, his previous disgrace at court, and his liberalism (alongside his friendship with Duport and Choderlos de Laclos), all seem to point towards his involvement.
Grace Elliott, who was one of Louis Philippe's lovers at the time, attested to the fact that during the riot of July 12, the duke was on a fishing excursion, and that he was rudely treated by the king the next day when the duke went to offer his cousin his services.

Supposedly, the duke was so disgusted by the accusation that he was seeking the crown, that he wanted to go to the United States. His favorite lover, the Countess of Buffon, however, would not go with him, so he decided to remain in Paris.
He was later accused of having caused the march of a hungry mob on Versailles on October 5 by hoarding grain and blaming the lack of bread in Paris on the king and queen.

Eyewitnesses claim to have seen him circulating among the rowdy crowd earlier in the day and of having directed the attack upon the queen's bedchamber later that evening in an attempt to have his nemesis, Marie Antoinette, murdered by the frenzied peasants.

The Marquis de la Fayette, apparently jealous of Louis Philippe's popularity, persuaded the king to send the Duke to Britain on a mission, and he accordingly remained in England from October 1789 to July 1790.
On July 7, he took his seat in the National Assembly, which two days later reformed as the National Constituent Assembly. On October 2, both he and Honoré Mirabeau were declared by the Assembly entirely free of any complicity in the events of October.

He subsequently tried to keep himself distant from the political world, but he was still suspect to the court and subject to pressures from his partisans to replace Louis XVI.
His lack of political aspirations could be proven by noting that he did not attempt to obtain any leading position after the King's flight to Varennes (in June 1791).
In fact, Louis Philippe attempted to reconcile with the court in January 1792, but was rejected - and refused to aid the King any further.

In the summer of 1792, he was present for a short time with the Army of the North, together with his two sons, the future King and the Duke of Montpensier, but had returned to Paris before the insurrection of August 10.

During the Republic, he underwent personal risk in saving fugitives - in particular, he saved the life of Louis René Quentin de Richebourg de Champcenetz, the governor of the Tuileries Palace, who was his personal enemy, at the request of Mrs. Elliott.
After accepting the title of " Citoyen Égalité," conferred on him by the Commune, he was elected twentieth and last deputy for Paris to the National Convention, where he again had no notable contribution other than voting in the king's trial - he gave his vote for the execution of Louis.

This compliance to republican rules did not save him from suspicion, which was especially aroused by the friendship of his eldest son, the Duke of Chartres, with Charles François Dumouriez.
When the news of the desertion of Chartres and Dumouriez became known in Paris, all the Bourbons left in France, including Égalité, were ordered to be arrested on April 5.
He remained in prison at Fort Saint-Jean until October, and the beginning of the Reign of Terror.
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As a member of the House of Bourbon, Louis Philippe was shortlisted for a trial on October 3, and effectively tried and guillotined in the space of one day.
(accounts of his execution mention his exceptional courage).


Last edited by silverstar on Fri Nov 06, 2009 8:09 pm, edited 1 time in total.



Thu Oct 01, 2009 11:52 pm
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Post Re: Philippe-Egalité
By one account, at least, he said after his judgment that he wanted to go right to the scaffold.

I have a book which includes images of papers supposedly distributed by d'Orleans to stir up anger about bread shortages. The general impression one gets is that he wanted to supplant his cousin on the throne, but didn't know what a whirlwind he'd unleashed.

Otherwise, how saucy Mme de Genlis looks, even in a painting. Among her many many works (I know her far more as a writer than as his mistress) is a French-German phrasebook for French emigres, extremely useful for a glimpse at the daily life of the time (among other things, it includes an exhaustive list of things to order for breakfast). It also gives a rather amusing glimpse into her class's character - several of the phrases offered are to complain about the service, the food, etc. :) Some of these are in a section on being in jail (!).

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Fri Oct 02, 2009 4:48 pm
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Post Re: Philippe-Egalité
Yes, maybe this Mme de Genlis might reward a bit of research.
Coming from a poor background she entered into the world of the aristocracy.
became a writer and wrote over 80 works !


Fri Oct 02, 2009 6:50 pm
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Post Re: Philippe-Egalité
Perhaps that is significant, that his great grandfather was Regent and virtual ruler
of France when Louis 15ths was a boy
... ambition to rule, must have been in his genes.
He must have been a clever and enterprising man to develope the Palais Royal in such a flamboyant way
when he was given the property by his father in 1780.

The Palais Royal seems to have become a licencious, private kingdom in the very heart of Paris
allowing prostitution, political dissent, the printing of anti monarchy pamphlets etc,
even the waxworks of Dr Curtius came to be housed there too.

The authorities of Paris seem to have turned a blind eye to the goings on at the Palais Royal
Perhaps a more astute and worldly wise monarch would have nipped it in the bud long before it became the
hotbed of the Revolution......... but Louis 16th was living in a world of his own... a world of hunting and long days spent doing metalwork......... he just wasn't at the races !


Fri Oct 02, 2009 7:11 pm
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Post Re: Philippe-Egalité
Silverstar wrote:

but Louis 16th was living in a world of his own... a world of hunting and long days spent doing metalwork......... he just wasn't at the races !

Well Louis XVI suffered from tbe increasing isolation of Versailles, the popularity of whose court was waning, and the growing influence, economic, political, artistic and philosophical of the capital city. Paris was where it was happening, Provence was at the Luxembourg palace, Orléans was promoting his Palais Royal and the literary salons attracted the free thinkers and those tempted by a new order. The Palais Royal was perhaps a micrososm of a more general phenomenon. Its' not for nothing that the Paris mob's cry on the 5th October was "A Paris"! They wanted the sovereign back where he used always to be: in the centre of his capital city, where he could be observed and better controlled. Louis XVI was in fact a very active man, read thoroughly all the many items he had to deal with every day and astonished his ministers with his grasp of the varied subjects. After all he had to deal with an unprecedented deficit after the American war of independence and complex bond issues and government loan systems were no stranger to him.

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Fri Nov 06, 2009 2:25 pm
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Post Re: Philippe-Egalité
Yes, Louis had much to deal with, but it is still too bad he didn't pay attention to what was going on in his own backyard. All that Louis wanted to accomplish wouldn't do him any good if his reputation was in shambles. Had he put a stop to the goings on at the Palais Royal he would have saved himself alot of trouble. I still can't help thinking that although Louis XVI does indeed seem to have many capabilities - he does seem to be an intelligent man - maybe he lacked common sense. He didn't have many friends, lacked in social graces and doesn't seem to have been able to read people very well. I don't think that when people are saying really horrible untrue things about you, that it's something you can just let go on - there comes a point where you have to respond to it. Especially if it's on a national level. The non-response almost makes people wonder......Human nature has not changed so much and people love gossip and "dirty laundry". Both MA and Louis could have defended themselves but for some reason they chose not to.


The exact reasons Baron stated for the populace wanting the King in Paris - is why Louis XIV built Versailles just that far away. He wanted to be slightly out of the grasp of the Parisians. Also the Regent (to Louis XV) spoken of by Sliverstar was the brother of Marie Antoinette's Grandmother. Louis XIV gave the Palais Royal to the Regent when he married Louis XIV's daughter. The Regent was also Louis XIV's nephew.


Thu Jan 28, 2010 5:29 pm
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Post Re: Philippe-Egalité
Amazing to think of such a close family connection
the Royal families of France and Austria obviously have close family connections.
Philippe Egalite in fact related to Marie Antoinette... and yet he
seems to have been her enemy at court.


Thu Jan 28, 2010 6:28 pm
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Post Re: Philippe-Egalité
I suspect he made her an enemy not out of personal feeling, but because she was an easy target, and he wanted to discredit Louis XVI's reign anyway he could.

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Fri Jan 29, 2010 8:53 am
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